Hand auger / hand spinner Hand augers are useful for clearing sink and bathtub drains.
(A 1?4-inch cable, for example, should never be used in a drain with a calibre of more than two inches.) Closet auger / toilet auger The closet auger (named after water closet) feeds a relatively short auger through a hook-shaped length of metal tubing.
The hook shape makes it easier to feed the auger into the toilet.
A plastic boot on the end of the auger protects the finish of the visible porcelain.
As recently as the late 19th century sewerage systems in some parts of the rapidly industrializing United Kingdom were so inadequate that water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid remained a risk. From as early as 1535 there were efforts to stop polluting the River Thames in London.
Leading up to the Industrial Revolution the River Thames was identified as being thick and black due to sewage, and it was even said that the river ?smells like death.?24 As Britain was the first country to industrialize, it was also the first to experience the disastrous consequences of major urbanisation and was the first to construct a modern sewerage system to mitigate the resultant unsanitary conditions.citation needed During the early 19th century, the River Thames was effectively an open sewer, leading to frequent outbreaks of cholera epidemics.Proposals to modernise the sewerage system had been made during 1856, but were neglected due to lack of funds.
However, after the Great Stink of 1858, Parliament realised the urgency of the problem and resolved to create a modern sewerage system.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation
Water supply and sanitation has been a primary logistical challenge since the dawn of civilization. Where water resources or infrastructure or sanitation systems are insufficient for the population, people fall prey to disease, dehydration, and in extreme cases, death. Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near major rivers..
Over the millennia, technology has dramatically increased the distances across which water can be relocated, but the availability of clean and fresh water remains a limiting factor on the size and density of population centers, and is expected to remain so into the foreseeable future.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation