Hand auger / hand spinner Hand augers are useful for clearing sink and bathtub drains.
They are unsuitable for sending through flush toilets, because the wire might damage the bowl; also, flush toilets have relatively large drain pipes in which the narrow snake can be become tangled.(A 1?4-inch cable, for example, should never be used in a drain with a calibre of more than two inches.) Closet auger / toilet auger The closet auger (named after water closet) feeds a relatively short auger through a hook-shaped length of metal tubing. The hook shape makes it easier to feed the auger into the toilet.
As recently as the late 19th century sewerage systems in some parts of the rapidly industrializing United Kingdom were so inadequate that water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid remained a risk. From as early as 1535 there were efforts to stop polluting the River Thames in London.
Water supply and sanitation has been a primary logistical challenge since the dawn of civilization.Where water resources or infrastructure or sanitation systems are insufficient for the population, people fall prey to disease, dehydration, and in extreme cases, death. Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near major rivers. Over the millennia, technology has dramatically increased the distances across which water can be relocated, but the availability of clean and fresh water remains a limiting factor on the size and density of population centers, and is expected to remain so into the foreseeable future.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation.